Athletes have different emotional responses to different events and situations in sports. These reactions reflect both their own self-evaluation and the evaluations of other people who observe them. Some of these feelings occur before the game and others occur during the game and after it. The subculture of sports has rules that guide athletes’ emotional responses, such as appropriate behavior during national anthems or after game victory celebrations.
Several types of sports are competitive, and a sport’s rules and customs make it fair for participants and spectators. These rules help create a level playing field for players and allow for consistent adjudication of the winner. In some sports, the winning team is determined by the performance of the team, while in others, the result is determined by the performance of the individual.
Sports play an important role in defining national identity. They are often associated with historical and invented traditions, flags, anthems, and ceremonies. They also play a role in cultural exchanges. Some sports are even interpreted as national symbols. For example, cricket in the United Kingdom embodies the values of upper-class Englishmen, and is the focus of national identification.
The rise of modern sports began in the late seventeenth century in England. At this time, the concept of a sports record emerged. Puritans had banned traditional pastimes, but the Church of England’s Restoration encouraged a variety of activities. Under the leadership of the Marylebone Cricket Club, which was founded in 1787, organized games began to develop.